It is recorded that Madurai was captured by the British in 1763 and detachment of European Troops came to be stationed in the town. Rev.Schwarts, the famous missionary in Tanjore was now and then ministering to the congregation in Madurai. Rev.Fredrick who followed him later planned to build a church on behalf of the S.P.C.K.(Society for Propagation of Christian Knowledge). A small church was built in 1800. This chapel has been described as a small building and a very plain structure.
In 1822, the Europeans in Madurai and other Christians of the Anglican persuasion desired to build a bigger church to meet their growing needs. Mrs.Sophia Elizabeth Rash, then a resident of Madurai possessed some land within the fort and was willing to sell it for a small sum if a church was built upon it. Mr. Daniel Burby, a writer in the collector’s office purchased as much as would be required for the church for Rs.164/= in October 1824 and made it over to the Tanjore Mission. Then a collection was made in the station and a sum of Rs.153/= was raised. The then Collector, Mr. Rhouse Peter (also known as Peter Pandian) added Rs.1,100/= to this; and a chapel was built in 1827 on the site purchased by Mr.Burby. This new church was owned and managed by the Tanjore Mission of S.P.C.K.
In 1868 the S.P.C.K. conveyed the above building to the Bishop of Madras to be held in Trust by him for the purpose of the Church of England. In 1869, Mr.Robert Fischer of Madurai wrote to the Bishop of Madras and placed Rs.1,000/= at his disposal for the improvement and enlargement of the existing chapel or for the erection of a new one. Eventually it was decided that the old church should be demolished and a new one built on the same site.
The foundation stone of the new church was laid on 2nd June, 1875 by Colonel J.F.Fisher, R.E., the District Engineer. The design was prepared by Mr.R. Chisholn, consulting architect to the Government of Madras. The whole expenditure incurred on the building and furniture was Rs.40,000/=.
The sale price of the materials of the old church amounted to Rs.470/=. The whole cost was borne by Mr.Robert Fisher and his sister Mrs.Jessie Foulkes, wife of a Madras chaplain. The new church was consecrated on the 15th of June,1881. The church is built of black stones and it is all called “Stone Church”. The building measured 50 feet length, 25 feet breadth and a 7 feet wide verandah on both sides. The graves of Mr.Rhouse Peter and George Fredrick Fisher with tomb stones are located in a chamber beneath the Altar.
With the passage of time the church was found too small to hold the growing congregation. Consequently steps were taken for extending the fabric of the church. Foundation for the extension was laid in 1968 and the construction was completed in 1970. The consecration took place on the 20th December,1970. In the new church the altar has been shifted from the east to the west. A Community Hall was constructed in 1994.